Ed Easterling’s book and Vitaliy N. Katsenelson’s book explain the cycles of secular bull and bear equity markets over the past 200 years. Solutions for investment professionals have been identified to beat the buy-and-hold strategy in a secular bear market.
How about using the old-fashioned CD in a secular bear market for the less sophisticated? Following graphs compare returns of different secular bull/bear periods between S&P 500 data from Yahoo! and Federal Funds Rate. Please note that CD provides better return than Federal Funds Rate.
Who says we have to buy and hold general stock market index funds in a secular bear market?